- Leptospirosis refers to a group of infections that are caused by Leptospira bacteria. These include Weil's Disease, infectious jaundice, and
canicola fever. In most cases, rats, dogs, cows, and pigs
are the prime carriers of these bacteria.
- The disease is transmitted to
humans through food and water contaminated with the urine of
affected animals (e.g., in a slaughterhouse). It may also be
transmitted by bathing or working in contaminated
- Less severe disease (though very
uncomfortable) called "anicteric" (not associated with
- High fever (102.2 to 104)
- Body aches
- Severe headache
- Muscle pain (especially calves)
- Abdominal pain
- Eyes become red
- Then 1-3 days of
- Symptoms first phase reappear
- Eye pain
- Enlarged lymph
- Severe form ("icteric") called
- Mental impairment
- Low Blood Pressure
- Kidney impairment
- Liver impairment (yellow skin and
- Mild disease called pretibial
- Red patches on the skin of the lower legs
- Rash may be
- White blood cell count may be normal or up to 50,000/mL.
- Urine may show bile, protein, red cells, or casts.
- BUN and Creatinine (kidney functions tests) may be elevated.
- Liver function tests may be elevated.
- Creatinine Kinase is elevated in anicteric form.
- Cerebral spinal fluid (spinal tap) may show organisms by dark field exam or special culture.
- Urine cultures will also grow from day 10 until day 42.
- Leptospira titers are elevated after 7 days.
- Rapid IgM Elisa
- Penicillin intravenously or
- Myocarditis (heart muscle inflammation)
- Kidney failure
- Massive bleeding
- Aseptic Meningitis
- Severe eye
- Seek immediate treatment. The more
severe form (Weil's syndrome) can result in death in 1 in 20
afflicted individuals. Also, early treatment is best for all
forms of this disease.
- Doxycycline 200 mg once a week
during risk of
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