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more about Bronchitis

Chest infection

  • Bronchitis is an infection in the lungs caused either by a virus or a bacterium.  It can be classified into acute bronchitis and chronic bronchitis.  It is associated with a trachea infection (tracheobronchitis) or Upper Respiratory Infection such as nasopharyngitis.  The infection causes inflammation of the lung tissue.  In general, viral and atypical bacterial infections will have either a dry cough, or a cough with white or light-yellow phlegm, while traditional bacteria will result in a cough with dark yellow or green phlegm.  Untreated, bacterial bronchitis can turn into pneumonia.

  • Cough
  • Phlegm
  • Fever
  • Chest pain worsens with deep breaths or coughs

  • Viral -- adenovirus, Influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, paraInfluenza, and others
  • An undifferentiated tracheobronchitis can occur in older children and adolescents.
  • Atypical bacteria (e.g., Mycoplasma)
  • Bacterial
  • Fungi
  • Chronic bronchitis can be associated with Asthma, environmental disease, Cystic Fibrosis, ciliary dyskinesis, bronchiectasis, or chronic inhalation of dust or noxious fumes.

  • Examination:
    1. Upper airway rhonchi (i.e., continuous sound produced in the throat; snorelike)
    2. Test may also include a chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests, blood count, and sputum culture.

  • Allergy
  • Air pollution
  • Sinusitis
  • Underlying immunologic or mucosal abnormality
  • Asthma
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Foreign bodies

  • High humidity (humidifier) for all cases
  • Viral
    1. Symptomatic treatment
    2. High humidity
  • Atypical bacteria -- Erythromycin, Doxycycline, Biaxin, Levaquin
  • Bacterial -- many antibiotics work (some recommended are Ceftin, Augmentin, Levaquin)
  • Drink plenty fluids, rest, stopping smoking, and use vaporizers.  These are all part of effective therapy plans.  Bronchodilators, in the form of inhalers (aerosolized medications), may be prescribed.  Steroid inhalers may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation in the airways.
  • For repeated attacks of bronchitis: Evaluation for respiratory tract anomalies, foreign bodies, bronchiectasis, immune deficiency, Tuberculosis, allergy, Sinusitis, Tonsillitis, adenoiditis, or Cystic Fibrosis.

more about Bronchitis

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